Few studies have reported the associations of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) with cytokine release syndrome (CRS), neurotoxic events (NEs) and efficacy after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for relapsed or refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). We present a retrospective study performed on 113 patients with R/R MM who received single anti-BCMA CAR T-cell, combined with anti-CD19 CAR T-cell or anti-CD138 CAR T-cell therapy.
Eight patients were given G-CSF after successful management of CRS, and no CRS re-occurred thereafter. Of the remaining 105 patients that were finally analyzed, 72 (68.6%) received G-CSF (G-CSF group), and 33 (31.4%) did not (non G-CSF group). We mainly analyzed the incidence and severity of CRS or NEs in two groups of patients, as well as the associations of G-CSF timing, cumulative dose and cumulative time with CRS, NEs and efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy.
Both groups of patients had similar duration of grade 3–4 neutropenia, and the incidence and severity of CRS or NEs.There were also no differences in the incidence and severity of CRS or NEs between patients with the timing of G-CSF administration ≤3 days and those >3 days after CAR T-cell infusion. The incidence of CRS was greater in patients receiving cumulative doses of G-CSF >1500 μg or cumulative time of G-CSF administration >5 days. Among patients with CRS, there was no difference in the severity of CRS between patients who used G-CSF and those who did not. The duration of CRS in anti-BCMA and anti-CD19 CAR T-cell–treated patients was prolonged after G-CSF administration. There were no significant differences in the overall response rate at 1 and 3 months between the G-CSF group and the non–G-CSF group.
Our results showed that low-dose or short-time use of G-CSF was not associated with the incidence or severity of CRS or NEs, and G-CSF administration did not influence the antitumor activity of CAR T-cell therapy.
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Published online: March 11, 2023
Accepted: January 23, 2023
Received: August 18, 2022
© 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.