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Prognostic impact of the simple L-index and absolute lymphocyte count early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Published:January 03, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2022.11.008

      Abstract

      Background aims

      The L-index, designed as a quantitative parameter to simultaneously assess the duration and severity of lymphopenia, and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) have a prognostic impact after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, discrepancies have been reported in the impact of ALC, and limited information is currently available on the L-index.

      Methods

      To search for a better clinical tool, the authors retrospectively compared the simple L-index at 30 days (sL-index(30)), which aims to make the original L-index more compact, and ALC at 30 days (ALC(30)) after allo-HSCT in 217 patients who underwent allo-HSCT at the authors’ institutions.

      Results

      Median sL-index(30) was 11 712 (range, 4419–18 511) and median ALC(30) was 404 (range, 0–3754). In a multivariate analysis, higher sL-index(30) was associated with a significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.02, P = 0.02 for every increase of 100 in sL-index(30)) as well as non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00–1.03, P = 0.01 for every increase of 100 in sL-index(30)). Although higher ALC(30) was associated with significantly lower CIR (HR, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.89–1.00, P = 0.04 for every increase of 100/μL in ALC(30)), it was not extracted as an independent risk factor for NRM (HR, 0.96, 95% CI, 0.88–1.05, P = 0.39). Higher sL-index(30) was associated with a slightly higher rate of grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00–1.04, P = 0.12 for every increase of 100 in sL-index(30)) but not chronic GVHD (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.99–1.01, P = 0.63). ALC(30) was not associated with rates of grade 3–4 acute GVHD (HR, 1.02, 95% CI, 0.88–1.17, P = 0.81) or chronic GVHD (HR, 1.02, 95% CI, 0.98–1.06, P = 0.34). In a receiver operating characteristic curve, the cutoff values of sL-index(30) and ALC(30) for CIR were 9000 and 500, respectively, and the cutoff value of sL-index(30) for NRM was 12 000.

      Conclusions

      sL-index(30) is a promising tool that may be applied to various survival outcomes. A large-scale prospective study is needed to clarify whether medical interventions based on sL-index(30) values will improve the clinical prognosis of patients.

      Key Words

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