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Day 4 collection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized HLA-matched sibling donor peripheral blood allografts demonstrates no long-term increase in chronic graft-versus-host disease or relapse rates

Published:January 21, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2022.11.004

      Abstract

      Background aims

      In a previous pilot study of HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the authors determined the feasibility of day 4 versus day 5 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection compared with a historical cohort. Given identified differences in the PBSC product (day 4 cohort with significantly lower infused total nucleated, mononuclear and CD3 cells compared with other collection cohorts), the authors performed a follow-up study to determine long-term post-HCT outcomes, including detailed characterization of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

      Methods

      This was a prospective observational study, and the authors collected data on chronic GVHD, staging, sites of involvement and treatments. Performance status, incidence of relapse, overall survival and duration of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) were also evaluated. Data were examined retrospectively. To account for differences in length of follow-up among cohorts, the authors also determined performance status and chronic GVHD staging, sites and treatment at 2 years post-HCT.

      Results

      At 2 years post-HCT, the overall survival rate was 71.7% in the day 4 cohort compared with 61.5%, 52% and 56% in the day 5, 2-day and historical cohorts, respectively (P = 0.283). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 65.2% in the day 4 cohort versus 46.4% in the day 5 cohort, 51.1% in the 2-day cohort and 65% in the historical cohort (P = 0.26). There was no significant difference in the maximum overall stage of chronic GVHD (P = 0.513), median number of sites involved (P = 0.401) or cumulative incidence of discontinuation of IST (P = 0.32). Death from chronic GVHD was less common in the day 4 and day 5 cohorts compared with the 2-day and historical cohorts, though this did not reach statistical significance.

      Conclusions

      The authors’ preliminary results demonstrated that collection of allogeneic matched sibling donor PBSCs on day 4 of G-CSF was feasible, reduced donor exposure to growth factor and was associated with an initial cost savings. Importantly, the authors now demonstrate that transplantation of day 4 mobilized PBSCs is not associated with any adverse outcomes post-HCT, including late effects such as chronic GVHD. Further investigation of donor G-CSF collection algorithms is merited in other HCT settings, including unrelated and mismatched related donors.

      Key Words

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