γc cytokine-aided crosstalk between dendritic cells and natural killer cells together with doxorubicin induces a healer response in experimental lymphoma by downregulating FOXP3 and programmed cell death protein 1

Published:August 31, 2022DOI:


      Background aims

      The stimulatory natural killer–dendritic cell axis in the tumor microenvironment could play a critical role in stimulating cytotoxic T cells and driving immune responses against cancer.


      We established a novel treatment protocol by adroitly combining chemotherapy with doxorubicin and immunotherapy with dendritic cells and natural killer cells against a highly aggressive and malignant lymphoma called Dalton's lymphoma.


      Our data suggest that binary application of adoptive cell therapy and chemotherapy nearly cures (95%) early-stage experimental lymphoma. In the case of mid-stage cancer, the success rate was significantly lower but still impressive (75%). Our results demonstrated that the application of combination therapy in early-stage cancer significantly reduced the tumor volume and extended the lifespan of the experimental animal in addition to reinvigorating the immune system, including restoring the effector functions of dendritic cells and natural killer cells. The novel protocol limits the metastasis of tumor cells in vascularized organs and rearms the adaptive immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.


      Combination therapy in the early stage alters the cytokine profile, increases interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α in the serum of treated animals and downregulates programmed cell death protein 1 expression in CD8+ T cells. Thus, cooperative and cognitive interactions between dendritic cells and natural killer cells in addition to therapy with doxorubicin promote the immune response and tumoricidal activities against lymphoma.

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