Licensing increases the quantity and immunomodulatory cargo of mesenchymal stromal cell exosomes

      Background: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote tolerogenic immune responses through cell-cell contact dependent and independent (paracrine) mechanisms. Soluble factors as well as secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) compose the MSC secretome and mediate paracrine signaling. We assessed the effect of cytokine priming (“licensing”) on the quantity and content of secreted MSC EVs.
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