Designing microtissue bioassemblies for skeletal regeneration: Healing critical size long bone defects

      A major limitation in Tissue Engineering is the ability to control complexity within 3D engineered constructs. Diffusion limitations lead to the development of uncontrolled or even adverse environments leading to inappropriate stem cell fate decisions within the cultured tissue and cell death. Moreover the lack of control of the environment within these constructs makes the application of quality engineering principles such as Quality by Design impossible. Length-scales chosen for the creation of in vitro tissues have not been chosen based on rational criteria and hence minimal success has been attained upon implantation. Recently bottom-up strategies have been introduced advocating the use of smaller tissue modules as building blocks for the formation of larger implants.
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