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Progress in the use of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative medicine

  • Eduardo Anitua
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Eduardo Anitua, DDS, MD, PhD, Foundation Eduardo Anitua, Jacinto Quincoces, 39, 01007, Vitoria (Álava), Spain.
    Affiliations
    BTI—Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain

    University Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Oral Implantology UIRMI, UPV/EHU—Fundación Eduardo Anitua, Vitoria, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    † These authors contributed equally to this work.
    María Troya
    Footnotes
    † These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    BTI—Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain

    University Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Oral Implantology UIRMI, UPV/EHU—Fundación Eduardo Anitua, Vitoria, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    † These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Mar Zalduendo
    Footnotes
    † These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    BTI—Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain

    University Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Oral Implantology UIRMI, UPV/EHU—Fundación Eduardo Anitua, Vitoria, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    † These authors contributed equally to this work.
Published:February 12, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2017.12.011

      Abstract

      The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues. Many isolation, culture and cryopreservation protocols have been proposed that are known to affect cell phenotype, proliferation rate and differentiation capacity. The clinical applications of therapies based on dental pulp stem cells demand the development of new biomaterials suitable for regenerative purposes that can act as scaffolds to handle, carry and implant stem cells into patients. Currently, the development of xeno-free culture media is emerging as a means of standardization to improve safe and reproducibility. The present review aims to describe the current knowledge of dental pulp stem cells, considering in depth the key aspects related to the characterization, establishment, maintenance and cryopreservation of primary cultures and their involvement in the multilineage differentiation potential. The main clinical applications for these stem cells and their combination with several biomaterials is also covered.

      Key Words

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