Introduction: Twelve to 40% patients developed hypertrophic scars after skin burns. Post-burn hypertrophic scars may be associated with pain, erythema, pruritus and dysesthesia, that decrease quality of life of the patients, and are characterized by chronic inflammation and skin retraction due to an excess production of connective tissue by fibroblasts. Hypertrophic scars contain significantly more mast cells than mature scars and this infiltration seems to be an important contributor to the pathological evolution of the scar. Indeed, mast cells secreted high amounts of cytokines and growth factors, responsible of chronic inflammation of the scar and they secreted molecules such as histamine and tryptase that stimulate the production of connective tissue by the fibroblasts. Previous study demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) inhibited the activation and the degranulation of mast cells. Therefore, we studied the effect of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), that have similar immunosuppressive capacities than BM-MSCs, but are easily obtained by liposuction, on mast cells.
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