Transplantation of allogeneic adventitial progenitor cells improves vascularization and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a swine model of reperfused acute myocardial infarction

      We reported the presence of clonogenic adventitial progenitor cells (APCs) in close vicinity to the vasa vasorum of arteries and veins. Human APCs share properties with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as the expression of CD44, CD90, CD105, the lack of hematopoietic (CD45) and endothelial markers (CD31, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and VE-Cadherin), clonogenicity, and immunomodulatory activity. Using a GMP-compliant standard operating protocol, we were able to expand millions of viable APCs from a small remnant of saphenous vein used for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Importantly, we showed that transplantation of APCs promotes cardiac repair in immunodeficient as well as immunocompetent murine models of MI, these benefits being attributable to direct incorporation of the injected cells around, and stabilization of the host's vasculature, as well as through release of angiocrine factors.
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